Uneven and combined development as a methodological tool

A dynamic approach after a dialogue between Kondratiev and Trotsky

Autores

Palavras-chave:

technological revolutions; center-periphery divide; varieties of capitalism; expansion of global capitalism, revoluções tecnológicas; divisão centro-periferia; variedades de capitalismo; expansão do capitalismo global

Resumo

Este artigo sugere que a elaboração de Trotsky sobre o desenvolvimento desigual e combinado pode ser uma ferramenta metodológica para compreender o capitalismo contemporâneo. Um diálogo com Kondratiev é um ponto de partida, pois cada nova revolução tecnológica cria um novo nível de desigualdade. As revoluções tecnológicas também transformam os canais por meio dos quais a combinação ocorre. Como tanto a desigualdade quanto a combinação mudam com o tempo, é possível ter uma abordagem dinâmica para o processo de desenvolvimento desigual e combinado. Essa abordagem dinâmica é uma metodologia para investigar como novos amálgamas entre formas modernas e arcaicas moldam variedades de capitalismo na periferia e transformam a dinâmica global do capitalismo.

Biografia do Autor

Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque, UFMG

Autor do livro Agenda Rosdolsky (publicado pela Editora UFMG, 2012). Professor titular do Departamento de Ciências Econômicas e do Cedeplar da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). E-mail: albuquerque@cedeplar.ufmg.br. 

Referências

ACHCAR, G. The people want: a radical exploration of the Arab uprising. London: Saqi Books, 2013.

AMSDEN, A. Asia's next giant: South Korea and late industrialization. New York/Oxford: Oxford University, 1989.

_____________. The rise of “the rest”: challenges to the West from late-industrializing economies. Oxford: Oxford University, 2001.

BARNETT, V. “Trotsky, Kondratiev, and long waves”, Journal of Trotsky Studies, n. 2, pp. 1-16, 1994.

_____________. Kondratiev and the dynamics of economic development: long cycles and industrial growth in historical context. Hampshire: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1998.

BERGÈRE, M. C. “The Chinese bourgeoisie” In: FAIRBANK, J. (ed.) The Cambridge History of China. Volume 12. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 721-825.

BRESNAHAN, T. “General purpose technologies” In: HALL, B. & ROSENBERG, N. (eds.) Handbook of the economics of innovation. Volume II. Amsterdam: North Holland, 2010, pp. 761-791.

BRITTO, G.; CAMARGO, O. S. ; KRUSS, G. & ALBUQUERQUE, E. “Global interactions between firms and universities”, Innovation and Development, v. 3, pp. 71-87, 2013.

BRITTO, J. N.; RIBEIRO, L. C. & ALBUQUERQUE, E. Networks of international patent citations: pattern of growth, self-organization and change. Belo Horizonte: Cedeplar-UFMG (Texto para Discussão 605), 2019.

CANTWELL, J. “Innovation and information technology in the MNE” In: RUGMAN, A. M. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of International Business. Oxford: Oxford University Press (Second Edition), 2009, pp. 417-446.

CHANDLER JR., A. The Visible Hand - The Managerial Revolution in America Business. London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977.

COHEN, W. & LEVINTHAL, D. A. “Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, pp. 128-152, 1990.

DARWIN, J. The Empire project: the rise and fall of the British World-System, 1830-1970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

DAVIDSON, N. “China: unevenness, combination, revolution?” In: DUNCAN, H. & RADICE, H. (eds.) 100 years of permanent revolution: Results and Prospects. London: Pluto Press, 2006, pp. 211-229.

DAY, R. “The theory of long cycle: Kondratiev, Trotsky, Mandel”, New Left Review, n. 99 (September-October), pp. 67-82, 1976.

DEUTSCHER, I. Trotsky - o profeta desarmado. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira (1968), 1959.

DIAS, J. P. Armadilha da renda média: teoria, indicadores e a experiência recente do Brasil. Monografia de conclusão do curso de Ciências Econômicas, – FACE-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, 2018.

DJANKOV, S. “Russia’s economy under Putin: from crony capitalism to state capitalism”, Policy Brief 15-18. Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2015.

DRÈZE, J. & SEN, A. India: development and participation. Oxford: Oxford University, 2002.

DUNNING, J. & LUNDAN, S. Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar (Second edition), 2008.

ERNST, D. Innovation offshoring: Asia’s emerging role in Global Innovation Networks. Honolulu: East-West Center, 2006.

ESPING-ANDERSON, G. The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity, 1990.

FAIRBANK, J. “The creation of the treaty system” In: FAIRBANK, J. (ed.) The Cambridge History of China. Volume 10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 213-263.

FINE, B. & RUSTOMJEE, Z. The political economy of South Africa: from minerals-energy complex to industrialisation. London: Westview, 1996.

FREEMAN, C. & LOUÇÃ, F. As time goes by: from the industrial revolutions to the information revolution. Oxford: Oxford University, 2001.

FREY, C. The technology trap: capital, labor and power in the age of automation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2019.

FREY, C. B. & OSBORNE, M. A. “The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation?”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, v. 114, pp. 254-280, 2017.

FURTADO, C.. Economic Development of Latin America: historical background and contemporary problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

______________. “Underdevelopment: to conform or to reform”, In: MEIER, G. (ed.) Pioneers of development. Second Series. Oxford: Oxford University/World Bank, 1987.

______________. Metamorfoses do capitalismo. Rio de Janeiro: Discurso na Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro no recebimento do título de Doutor Honoris Causa, 2002. (available at: http://www.redcelsofurtado.edu.mx).

GERSCHENKRON, A. Economic backwardness in historical perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University, (1962) 1952.

______________________. Europe in the Russian mirror: four lectures in economic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

GEUNA, A. (ed.) Global mobility of research scientists. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017.

GREENSTEIN, S. How the internet became commercial: innovation, privatization and the birth of a new network. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

HYMER, S. The International Operations of National Firms: A study of direct foreign investiment. Cambridge: MIT Press (1976), 1960.

__________. “The efficiency (contradictions) of multinational corporations”, American Economic Review, v. 60, n. 2, pp. 441-448, 1970.

__________. “The Internationalization of Capital”, Journal of Economic Issues, v. 6, n. 1, pp. 91-111, 1972.

KERR, S. P; KERR, W.; ÖZDEN, Ç. & PARSONS, C. “Global talent flows”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, v. 30, n. 4, pp. 83-106, 2016.

KING, L. P. & SZELÉNYI, I. “Post-communist economic systems” In: SMELSER, N. & SWEDBERG, R. (eds.) The handbook of economic sociology. Princeton/New York: Princeton University Press/Russel Sage Foundation (Second Edition), 2005, pp. 205-229.

KNEI-PAZ, B. The social and political thought of Leon Trotsky. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

KONDRATIEV, N. D. The world economy and its conjunctures during and after the war. Moscow: International Kondratiev Foundation (2004), 1922.

_____________________. “The Long Waves in Economic Life”, Review of Economic Statistics, v. 17, n. 35, pp. 105-115 (1935), 1926a.

_____________________. “Long cycles of economic conjuncture” In: MAKASHEVA, N.; SAMUELS, W. & BARNETT, V. (eds.) The works of Nikolai D. Kondratiev. London: Pickering and Chato (1998), 1926b, pp. 25-60.

_____________________. “La dynamique des prix des produits industriels et agricoles” In: FONTVIELLE, L. (ed.) Les grands cycles de la conjoncture. Paris: Economica (1992) 1928, pp. 377-492.

KUO, T. & LIU, K. “Self-strengthening: the pursuit of Western technology” In: FAIRBANK, J. (ed.) The Cambridge History of China. Volume 10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 491-542.

LEE, K. Schumpeterian analysis of economic catch up: knowledge, path-creation, and the middle-income trap. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

LEE, K. & MALERBA, F. “Catch-up cycles and changes in industrial leadership: windows of opportunity and responses of firms and countries in the evolution of sectoral systems”, Research Policy, v. 46, pp. 338-351, 2017.

LINDEN, M. “Gerschenkron's secret: a research note”, Critique, v. 40, n. 4, pp. 553-562, 2012.

LOUÇÃ, F. “Nikolai Kondratiev and the early consensus and discussions about history and statistics”, History of Political Economy, v. 31, n. 1, pp. 169-205, 1999.

MAKASHEVA, N.; SAMUELS, W. & BARNETT, V. (eds.) The works of Nikolai D. Kondratiev. London: Pickering and Chato, 1998.

MANDEL, E. O capitalismo tardio. São Paulo: Abril Cultural, (1982) 1972.

MARQUES, S. F. Mudanças na clivagem centro-periferia e o efeito bumerangue: o impacto da periferia na reconfiguração sistêmica do capitalismo no século XXI. Tese (Doutorado em Economia) – Cedeplar, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, 2014.

MARX, K. Capital. Volume I. London: Penguin Books (1976), 1867.

MARX, K. & ENGELS, F. Manifesto (available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm), 1848. Access in May 20 2019.

MCKINSEY GLOBAL INSTITUTE. A future that works: automation, employment and productivity. Brussels/San Francisco/Shangai: McKinsey Global Institute, 2017.

MYERS, R. & WANG, Y. “Economic developments 1644-1800” In: PETERSON, W. (ed.) The Cambridge History of China. Volume 9, Part 1: The Ch'ing Empire to 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 563-646,

NAUGHTON, B. The Chinese economy: transitions and growth. Cambridge/London: The MIT Press, 2007.

NELSON, R. (ed.) National innovation systems: a comparative analysis. New York, Oxford: Oxford University, 1993.

OECD. Interconnected economies: benefiting from global value chains. Paris: OECD, 2013.

_______. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2016. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2016. (disponível em http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/sti_in_outlook-2016-en)

_______. The next production revolution: implications for governments and business. Paris: OECD, 2017.

OHKAWA, K. & KOHAMA, H. Lectures on developing economics: Japan's experience and its relevance. Tokyo: University of Tokyo, 1989.

PANITCH, L. & GINDIN, S. The making of global capitalism: the political economy of American empire. London: Verso, 2012.

PEREZ, C. “Technological revolutions and techno-economic paradigms”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, v. 34, n. 1, pp. 185-202, 2010.

PEREZ, C. & SOETE, L. “Catching up in technology: entry barriers and windows of opportunity” In: DOSI, G.; FREEMAN, C. & NELSON, R. et alii. (eds.). Technical change and economic theory. London: Pinter, 1988, pp. 458-479.

RAYCHAUDHURI, T. “The mid-eighteenth background” In: KUMAR, D. (ed.) The Cambridge Economic History of India. Volume 2 - c. 1757-2003. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp. 3-35.

RIBEIRO, L. C. & ALBUQUERQUE, E. The role of periphery in the current transition towards a new phase of capitalism: introductory questions on the changes of the centre-periphery divide. Belo Horizonte: Cedeplar-UFMG (Texto para Discussão 517), 2015.

RIBEIRO, L. C.; DEUS, L. G.; LOUREIRO, P. M. & ALBUQUERQUE, E. M. “Profits and fractal properties: notes on Marx, countertendencies and simulation models”, Review of Political Economy, v. 29, n. 2, pp. 282-306, 2017.

RIBEIRO, L. C.; RAPINI, M. S.; SILVA, L. A. & ALBUQUERQUE, E. “Growth patterns of the network of international collaboration in science”, Scientometrics, v. 114, pp. 159-179, 2018.

ROSENBERG, N. Technology and American economic growth. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, 1972.

_________________. “Chemical engineering as a General Purpose Technology” In: HELPMAN, E (ed.). General Purpose Technologies and economic growth. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press, 1998, pp. 167-192.

SAID, E. W. Culture and imperialism. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

SCHUMPETER, J. Business cycles: a theoretical, historical and statistical analysis of the capitalist process. Philadelphia: Porcupine, (1989) 1939.

SELWYN, B. “Trotsky, Gerschenkron and the political economy of late capitalist development”, Economy and Society, v. 40, n. 3, pp. 421-450, 2011.

TROTSKY, L. Results and prospects. (available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1931/tpr/rp-index.htm), 1906. Access in June 20 2019.

_____________. 1905 (available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1907/1905/index.htm), 1907. Access in May 22 2019.

_____________. “The curve of capitalist development” (available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1923/04/capdevel.htm), 1923. Access in May 20 2019.

_____________. “Europe and America” (available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1926/02/europe.htm), 1926. Access in June 16 2019.

_____________. A história da Revolução Russa. Volume 1. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra (1978), 1930.

_____________. “Ninety years of the Communist Manifesto” (available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1937/10/90manifesto.htm), 1937. Access in June 7 2019.

WADE, R. Governing the market: economy theory and the role of government in East Asian industrialization. Princeton: Princeton University, 1990.

WORLD BANK. Digital dividends: World Development Report 2016. Washington: World Bank, 2016.

Downloads

Publicado

2020-12-27