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Imperialismo e desenvolvimento capitalista em O capital de Marx

Autores

  • Lucia Pradella King's College - Londres
  • Hugo Figueira Corrêa Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF)

Palavras-chave:

capitalismo, imperialismo, colonialismo, internacionalismo, Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe (MEGA2)

Resumo

Este artigo pretende contribuir com o debate corrente sobre o “novo imperialismo” por meio da apresentação dos principais resultados de uma leitura de O capital de Marx à luz de seus escritos sobre o colonialismo, que permaneciam desconhecidos durante o antigo debate marxista sobre o imperialismo. Pretende-se provar que, em seu principal trabalho, Marx não analisa uma economia nacional ou seu correspondente em um modelo abstrato de sociedade capitalista, mas um sistema mundial polarizador e em constante expansão. Essa abstração permite identificar as leis do desenvolvimento do capitalismo e seus antagonismos, refletindo a tendência do capital de Estados dominantes de, por meio do recurso permanente aos métodos da assim chamada “acumulação primitiva", se expandir e aumentar, ao mesmo tempo, a exploração de trabalhadores em todo o mundo e a cooperação entre eles. O que foi definido posteriormente como imperialismo, para Marx, é a forma concreta do processo de “globalização” do capital dos Estados dominantes. Com o desenvolvimento de sua análise, Marx tornou-se cada vez mais consciente das consequências econômicas e políticas do imperialismo. Em sua atividade na Primeira Internacional, a respeito da questão da independência irlandesa, Marx afirmou a importância fundamental de construir uma solidariedade real entre as lutas da classe nos países imperialistas e uma resistência anticolonial nos países colonizados e dependentes. Seu exame do imperialismo e sua perspectiva internacionalista foram negligenciados, negados, quando não completamente invertidos, na interpretação e na sistematização de seu pensamento por líderes reformistas da Segunda Internacional. Em sua tentativa de reagir contra essas tendências e desenvolver uma análise e uma estratégia política adequada à nova fase de expansão imperialista generalizada, de aumento das rivalidades interimperialistas e de crescente resistência anticolonial, Rosa Luxemburgo e Lênin reafirmaram a centralidade da crítica ao imperialismo nos planos político e econômico. Assim, mesmo sem ter plena consciência disto, eles desenvolveram e expandiram alguns aspectos já presentes no trabalho de Marx.

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2022-04-13

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